Descriptive Text

Descriptive Text: Pengertian, Fungsi, Struktur, dan Contohnya

Bagikan Materi Ini

Dalam pelajaran bahasa inggris, ada berbagai jenis teks yang berbeda-beda. Mulai dari descriptive text, narrative text, recount text, report text, dan jenis teks lainnya.

Namun, pada materi kali ini kita akan lebih memfokuskan mengenai descriptive text.

Pengertian Descriptive Text

Descriptive text adalah sebuah teks yang bertujuan untuk memberikan informasi. Konteks teks semacam ini adalah deskripsi tentang benda tertentu, binatang, orang atau lainnya. Misalnya kelas saya atau penyanyi favorit saya.

Fungsi Sosial

Fungsi sosial teks deskriptif yaitu untuk mendeskripsikan orang, tempat, atau menggambarkan benda tertentu.

Struktur Paragraph

Teks terdiri dari dua bagian, yaitu:

1. Identification

Pada bagian ini mengidentifikasi hal, orang, atau objek yang akan dijelaskan.

2. Description

Yang menggambarkan bagian, kualitas, karakteristik orang atau sesuatu yang dijelaskan.

Unsur Kebahasaan

Ada beberapa unsur kebahasaan descriptive text yang harus kita pahami, seperti

1. Focus on spesific participants

(Sebagai contoh. my Math teacher, Fauzan bedroom, etc.)

2. Using descriptive adjectives

(Sebagai contoh. blue book, long hair, strong legs, etc.)

3. Using action verbs

(Sebagai contoh. it eats meat, it sleeps at night, etc.)

4. Using thinking and feeling verbs to express the author’s opinion about the subject

(Sebagai contoh. I think it is a clever animal, police believe the suspect is armed, etc.)

5. Using the adverbials (adverb) to give additional information about behavior

(Sebagai contoh. fast, at tree house, etc.)

6. Using Figurative Language

(William is as white as chalk)

7. Using the simple present

Contoh Descriptive Text Singkat

Contoh Descriptive Text tentang Orang
I have a sister. Her name is Hilda.
Hilda is about seventeen years old. She has long hair, slanting eyes, and white skin. She is the only daughter in our family. Now, she is in the twelfth grade of Zeus Senior High School. In her school, she joins Zeus English Club. Besides, she also takes some course. Hilda is a friendly girl. Moreover, she has a very sweet smile. That’s why she has many friends.
Contoh Descriptive Text tentang Tempat
Tiara’s school is SMP 27.
It is on Jalan Sudirman. The school has 21 classrooms , a teachers’ office, a headmaster’s office, a staff office, a laboratory, a data room, a library, and a computer room. The school also has some lavatories, three canteens, and a small mosque. There are 47 teachers, 15 staff, and a headmaster. There are 845 students there. There are boys and girls. They study from 07.00 AM. to 01.30 PM. except on Fridays and Saturdays. They have the first break at 11.45 AM. During the break some students go to the library, some others go to the canteen for breakfast or lunch, and the others play in the ground or talk with their friends in the verdana.
Contoh Descriptive Text tentang Hewan

Jellyfish are not really fish. They are invertebrate animal. This means that unlike fish or people, they have no backbones. In fact, they have no bones at all.

Jellyfish have stomach and mouth, but no head. They have nervous system for sensing the world around them, but no brains. They are made almost entirely of water which is why you can look through them.

Some jellyfish can glow in darkness by making their own light. The light is made by chemical reaction inside the jellyfish glow for several reasons. For example, they may glow to scare away predators or to attract animals they like to eat.

Most jellyfish live in salt water, apart from a few types that live in fresh water. Jellyfish are found in oceans and seas all over the world. They livein warm, tropical seas, and in icy waters near the North and the South poles.

Menurutmu dari descriptive text di atas, mana yang Identification dan mana yang Description, tulis di kolom komentar ya..

Contoh Descriptive Text dalam Soal Pilihan Ganda

The following text is for no. 1 – 5

My school has a beautiful garden. It is in front of our school. It has a lot of beautiful flowers. There are roses, daisies, chrysanthemums, lilies, etc.

The flowers grow well because we take care of them. Each student in our chool has a duty not only to weed the garden but also to water the plants and flowers once a week. Our school only has one gardener; we have to help him to do this kind of work.

Taking care of a school is interesting. You can enjoy it as long as you are a school student. Perhaps someday you will enjoy your own garden. Gardening is a year-round activity.

1. What is the title of the text?

a. My Garden
b. School Garden
c. My School
d. Our Garden

2. What is the main idea of paragraph 2?

a. The way taking care of the school garden.
b. The beautiful flowers in the garden.
c. Taking care the garden is interesting.
d. How the gardener take care of the garden.

3. The word “water” in paragrapf 2, line 2 means ….

a. give water to …
b. make the water for …
c. drink the water
d. search the water

4. Why do the flowers grow well? Because the students ….

a. water them once a month
b. never take care of them
c. don’t help the gardener
d. take care of them well

5. The word “him” in paragraph 2, line 3 refers to?

a. The writer
b. The reader
c. The gardener
d. The headmaster

The following text for no. 6 – 10.

My Tucker is the headmaster of my school. He does not wear glasses. His eyes always frighten me even when i refuse to face them. They are sharp, hard, and cold. He uses them like a whip.

He always washes his hands in a basin in the corner of the room. After he has washed them, he will walk over to his desk and stand behind it looking at the pupils while he dries his hands on a small, white towel. He dries each finger separately, beginning with the first finger. His fingers are long and white. He rubs them briskly without losing the effect of deliberation and as he rubs them, he looks at us with his eyes.

No one moves while he dries his hands, no one speak. When he finishes, he will fold the towel and out it in the desk drawer. Then, he will awkwardly smile at us.

He really terrifies.

6. What is the purpose of the text?

a. To terrify the readers
b. To promote the writer’s headmaster carrier
c. To describe the writer’s headmaster
d. To inform the readers about a terrifying school.

7. “They are sharp, hard, and cold.”
The word in bold refers to ….

a. Mr. Tucker’s eyes
b. Mr. Tucker’s hands
c. The writer eyes
d. The writer hands

8. “… looking at the pupils …”
The word in bold has a meaning similar meaning to ….

a. principles
b. teachers
c. students
d. readers

9. Where does Mr. Tuckey usually wash his hands?

a. In a basin in the corner of the room
b. In front of the school
c. In one of the school bathrooms
d. In the school restroom

10. What does the headmaster do after he dries his hands?

a. He teaches the students
b. He terrifies all the students
c. He fold the towel
d. He touches his fingers one by one

Semoga dengan adanya contoh pada pembahasan dapat memudahkan kamu dalam memahami descriptive text. Jadi, jika kamu ingin menulis descriptive text bisa baca ulang materi ini. Semangat!


  1. Terima kasih informasinya, saya jadi semakin mengerti.

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